Apprenticed to William Sheppye, hotpresser*, and admitted to the freedom of the Barbers’ Company** of the City of London, 6 April 1636 (records of the Barbers’ Company, courtesy of the archivist, I G Murray, 17 April 2002);
supplied lead shot to the Navy, 1644; supplied English match, bullets and swords to the Ordnance, July 1645 and thereafter; delivered gunpowder to the New Model Army in December 1646 and to the Tower of London in 1649; in about 1649 hired a Kent labourer, James Knight, to help him maker gunpowder, acquired lease of property in Faversham and “certain ruinous water mills in Ospringe”***, and spent £1,500 in erecting a powder works on the site; became tenant of Tower Dock at the Tower of London after it was seized from the Crown (GMD p 53); of London, owner of powder mill at Ospringe*, January 1650 (KS, FP36 p 98);
stated in December 1671 that he had acquired this property on a lease which had expired in September 1671 and had acquired use of them about 20 years earlier); however the records of the owners of the freehold (St John’s College, Cambridge) show that the mill was let to Nicholas Wade (q.v.) at £15 a year in November 1648 and that his lease was renewed in September 1664; three possible explanations for this apparent inconsistency:
(i) Wade sub-let the mill to Judd;
(ii) Wade was his partner in his Faversham gunpowder business (GMD p 53-4); or
(iii) since Wade was a Royalist and Judd a Parliamentarian, Judd was his agent;
of London, merchant, on 6 December 1650 sold a barn, stable and coach-house inside the walls of Queenborough Castle to Henry Segar, then Mayor of the town (Hasted, vi.235-6, records that in that year the Commonwealth authorities had had a survey of the Castle done;
that the surveyor reported that it was useless as a defence but could yield £1,792.1.0½ in building materials; and that it was soon afterwards sold to John Wilkinson, who pulled the whole of it down and removed the materials: evidently in fact, if he did buy the whole castle, he must have sold part of it to Judd);
“a busy committee-man and sequestrator of the royalists estates” during the Commonwealth, bought an estate in Ospringe which had belonged to the Dean and Chapter of Rochester and in about 1652 built on it an “elegant seat”, the estate coming to be known as Judd’s Folly after the Restoration of Charles II because Judd was then “ousted” from it (Hasted, vi.520) (however Judd was not “ousted” from it, as he was granted a 21-year lease of it by the Dean and Chapter in 1661 (cf. infra);
writs against him (‘gentleman, of Ospringe’) issued in March (2) and July 1652, March and July 1653, and July 1654 (2), the second of those in March 1652 for not repairing a highway and the first in July 1654 describing him as ‘Powder Master’ (KI, 577, 592, 660, 742, 844, and 1021-2);
Capt. William Billiers, writing from Canterbury on 23 February 1653, reported that he had been to Judd’s powder mills at Ospringe to ascertain what powder and saltpetre could be had, that Judd had already shipped 87 barrels of powder [presumably to the Tower], would have another 60 ready by 1 March, and then “having a new mill, can supply 40 barrels a week” (CSPD 1652/3, p 535; FHHT, 30); writing on 26 March 1653 from an inn in Dover, he informed the Admiralty Commissioners that “he went to Mr Judd’s mills at Ospringe, Faversham, which are going as fast as the water would carry them, and they have promised to send 40 barrels of powder to the Tower next Tuesday” (CSPD 1652/3, p 554);
on 17 June 1653 the Council of State decided that a letter should be sent to the Mayor and Jurats of Faversham advising them that it was in compliance with an order from the Council “that the corn mill has been lately converted by Daniel Judd into a powder magazine, to supply the pressing public occasions; also to desire them to stay the proceedings against Judd till they inform Council of the cause thereof, and to permit Judd to take the waste water into the main river with leave of the owners where the banks must be made for that purpose, provided it prejudices no persons concerned” (FHHT, 30); (“Master” Judd) ? paying rent of 2s a year for Padbroke in Kingsfield, Faversham, on behalf of Nicholas Wade, 20 April 1653 (FHHT, p 99); in 1656 delivered 1,138 barrels of powder to the Tower, of which 53% were bad (GMSGN 22 p 11);
in 1657 ordered by Borough Council to convey powder from his works to the quayside in closed wagons or carts, with wheels which were not shod with iron (GMD p 55);
(as Daniel Jude) on 18 April 1661 granted 21-year lease by Dean and Chapter of Rochester of “all that there barn and Court Lodge called Goldfield, together with lands and woods lying in the parishes of Faversham and Ospringe” at a yearly rent of £12 2s (DRc/Arbl f 32) [the names ‘Court Lodge’ and ‘Goldfield’ are otherwise as yet unrecorded in the parishes of Faversham and Ospringe and the ‘Court Lodge’ of the lease may well be the mansion which Judd built for himself (probably on the site of an earlier dwelling) and which in the 19th century was known as Syndale, from the name of the dry valley which it overlooks on the W, (though Hasted (vi.520) says that in 1798 this was the name by which the present Syndale Farm was known) and also as Judd Folly:
‘Court Lodge’ is the term usually used in this part of Kent for a manor-house, and this Court Lodge may have been the manor-house of the adjacent manor of Putt Wood, Ospringe, for which no manor-house can now be identified); in July 1661 indicted for obstructing a watercourse in Ospringe with dung and other filth so that the highway became impassable (KI); other writs against him issued up to March 1672 (KI); citizen (of London) and barber-surgeon**, in February 1662 formed £1,200 partnership with his son Daniel, a London merchant, and William Marsh, merchant taylor, to make powder at Ospringe; Marsh died in September 1669 and in 1671 Judd brought a legal action against his son and the executors of Marsh’s estate, alleging that that they had entered into commitments without his knowledge and had made powder at mills other than those at Ospringe (GMD p 54); (as “Master” Daniel Judd) rated for two hearths and one “stove” in West St & Tanners St [probably actually on the W side of Tanners St], July 1662;
for two hearths and one stove “at his powder mill”, Faversham, 1663; for 2 hearths in Tanners St, 1671 (FHHT, pp 10, 68 & 54); (as Daniel “Juddg”, rated for 16 hearths (? two out of use) and 3 hearths, presumably in separate properties, Ospringe, November 1662; (described as “Gentleman”) for 16 hearths in property at Ospringe, 1663; for 15 hearths at property in Ospringe, 1664 (FHHT, 26, 30, 34, 47 & 49);
s. Joseph bapt. at Ospringe, 1663, and an infant daughter baptised and buried there, 1669 (FP36, 101); a freeman of Faversham, his freedom was revoked for non-payment of dues, July 1663 [and possibly he had failed to pay them because, it seems, he had been a Parliamentarian]; shipping gunpowder to London, 1663; in January 1664, on outbreak of Second Dutch War, contracted to supply Ordnance with powder;
in March 1665 summoned to explain why he had failed to fulfil this contract but, though he eventually did, did not win another contract during the War; still shipping powder to London, 1667; in December 1671 received a contract from the Ordnance to repair 50 barrels of powder (though his lease of Ospringe mills had expired in September) (GMD p 54); ****living in Stepney and still owner of a messuage and freehold lands in Faversham and Ospringe when he died in 1686 (GMD p 54); in 1686 recorded as late owner, with Robert Master, before Anthony Markham, of lands S and W of a 12-acre piece of land on the W side of Ospringe Road, on part of which the Faversham Arms public house was built c 1840 (t.d. of the former Faversham Arms p.h.). (Emailing on 29 November 2002, David Judd reported that he had tracked down references to
(a) a petition of Daniel Judd, Powdermaker, for a hearing to clear his name, 10 November 1649;
(b) Daniel Judd at St Peter ad Vincula [Tower of London], 1649-1660; c) London depositions as to encroachments by Daniel Judd upon the King’s, Tower Hill, London, 30 January 1661 - 29 January 1662); d) Daniel Judd’s brother Samuel and his wife Rebecca, and their children Samuel and Rebecca; e) marriage ot Samuel Judd jnr to Sarah Page on 26 April 1696 at St James’s, Duke’s Place, London).
* one who pressed paper or cloth: in the C17 paper, like gunpowder, was pressed in a screw-press. The first stage of paper-making was to place rags in a trough and reduce them to a pulp, using pestles or hammers: this machinery was similar to that used in early powder mlls (DI pp 36-7).
** the fact that he was a freeman of the Barbers’ Company does not mean that he was necessarily either a barber or a surgeon.
*** The ‘Ospringe’ powder mills were in the parish of Faversham, not Ospringe.